DOI Number : 10.5614/
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Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

Laras Cempaka1,2, Lienda Aliwarga1, Susanto Purwo3 &  Made Tri Ari Penia Kresnowati1*
1Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung,
Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia, Indonesia
2Department of Food Science and Technology, Bakrie University,
Gelanggang Mahasiswa Soemantri Brodjonegoro,
Jl. H.R.Rasuna Said Kav. C-22 Kuningan, Jakarta 12920, Indonesia
3PT Espe Food Saka, Jalan Alam Nirwana 3, Resort Dago Pakar,
Bandung 40198, Indonesia

Abstract. Titanium oxide (TiO2) was impregnated on the surface of titanosilicate-1 (TiO2/TS-1) and used as catalyst for hydroxylation of phenol with hydrogen peroxide. Calcination was conducted at various temperatures (400, 500, 600 and 700°C)in order to observe the effect on the structure and physicochemical properties towards catalytic activity for producing hydroquinone. The structure and physicochemical properties of the TiO2/TS-1 catalyst were characterized by several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, pyridine adsorption and hydrophilic measurement. The results show that by increasing the calcination temperature,the surface acidity of the catalyst was also increased.TheTiO2/TS-1 catalyst calcined at 500°Cproved to be optimal for hydroquinone production, in which the anatase-rutile phase may be present dispersed on the MFI framework.

Keywords: anatase; calcinations;phenol hydroxylation; rutile;TiO2/TS-1.

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